Hundreds of people, human rights activists, opponents, or independent journalists have been placed on this list in recent years, the qualification of which comes with strict administrative constraints and the obligation to display it as such in all public communications. The Russian Ministry of Justice asserted that Oleg Orlov *”opposed the special military operation in Ukraine, disseminated false information about decisions made by the public authorities of the Russian Federation, and participated in creating messages and texts for foreign agents”*. Oleg Orlov, 70, is also facing legal action for having *”discredited”* the Russian army under one of the new laws used by the Russian authorities to silence dissenting voices since the start of their offensive in Ukraine in February 2022.
Active since the 1970s, Oleg Orlov has become one of the pillars of Memorial, the main organization fighting in Russia to preserve the memory of Soviet repressions and documenting those of the Russia of President Vladimir Putin. The NGO was dissolved at the end of 2021 by the Russian justice system but was subsequently awarded the 2022 Nobel Peace Prize.